Strategic Management: Strategic Directions Folloed by Virgin Atlantic
Contents 1)Executive Summary 2)Introduction of Enjoin 3)External Environment 4)Company Financial Accomplishment 5)Competitive Manoeuvre 6)Strategic Superscription of Fruit 7)Methods of Fruit 8)Conclusions and Recommendations 9)Resources 10)Appendices 1)Executive Summary This communication endowment to evaluate the prevalent strategic superscriptions followed by Untouched Atlantic. Initially we examine the organisation’s mission declaration and authenticate how the anticipation of the enjoin is reflected though the strategic superficials.
It is ageical at CSR denotes an relevant role one Untouched Atlantic as it is seen to binder tenets and noble standards on satisfactory behaviour, BBC News (2009). Superficial parts are evaluated using a PESTLE decompose and it is made distinct that the Airline Industy as a perfect is indispose financially in the economic turndown. Forthcoming a conjuncture the courteous generalised horror of global warming and the smooth of discharges alertness are giving off is outcomeing in the council putting hurry on Untouched Atlantic and others to furnish ways of reducing their C02 output by increasing fuel exacts, Untouched Atlantic (2009).
Social tends are examined to segregateicularize the request of air voyage and why consumers abide to fly forthcoming a conjuncture profuseness alertness move Untouched Atlantic balance smaller no frills alertness. The financial accomplishment of Untouched Atlantic is analysed balance a 5 year age faceing at key relevancys to segregateicularize the sales and acquisitionforce of the organisation. These outcomes are compared to British Airways financial figures as courteous as Ryanair’s to get a amend intelligence of how financially fasten Untouched Airline is financially in similarity to its rivals.
An decompose is then conducted of the organisations competitive manoeuvre which identifies, using Porters 5 Forces, that Untouched Atlantic gravitate lower ‘differentiation centre manoeuvre’ as they present prize priced outcomes for a noble temper labor. Results from Ansoff’s fruit vector segregateicularize the strategic superscription of the Alertness fruit. The airline’s fruit sediment competitive through ask-for in forcible traffics forthcoming a conjuncture forcible outcomes as courteous as newly open ones.
The methods of fruit are verified as sequence-sharing bonds betwixt opposed alertness, sanctioning them to construct use of each other’s resources at segregateiality exacts. It was argued that, due to the prosperity of Untouched Atlantic’s prevalent 3 year strategic superscription, the airline should expand this manoeuvre. Other strategic concepts where applauded sorrowing the contention for sphere vary and they way in which the airline poses itself through stigmaing. 2)Introduction to Enjoin Untouched Atlantic was inaugurated by folower Richard Branson on the 22nd June 1984 Untouched Airline (2009). . 1. The anticipation of the airline was to present noble temper labors totally forthcoming a conjuncture cheerful prize for coin. Inaugurated in Music toil for abundant years Branson himself knew scanty encircling the aviation toil hence he used the enjoin of his colleague, Freddie Fields to contrive the speculation concurrently forthcoming a conjuncture his technical contriver Roy Gardner Management Today (1998). As a outfollow of inaugurated in the Music Toil Branson was all too common forthcoming a conjuncture notoriety obsessed culture and thus he packed the primary soaring was betwixt London and Newark Liberty forthcoming a conjuncture some courteous unreserved celebrities.
Virgin Atlantic merit the use of the illustrious faces seen voyageling on the inaugural contention as one of the parts of prosperity in launching the airline, Untouched Atlantic (2009). 2. 2. Untouched Atlantic inures a three year manoeuvre which thus far has proved prosperityful. The prosperity has been down to their probe profession specimen which is defined by their Mission Statement: “To Gain-ground a lucrative airline, where persons benevolence to fly and persons benevolence to fruit. ” Untouched Atlantic (2009)
Low exact alertness present a typically niggardly labor where as Untouched Atlantic, through their sequence-sharing bonds; pose themselves as presenting a expansive ramble of irrelevant destinations for persons who are disposed to pay prize prices. This profession specimen has the key intelligence that the way in which the outfollow is poseed and the habit supposing voyageling by untouched Atlantic, get secure customers get voyage generally and generally thus sanctioning them to consummate their long-term strategic superficials of increasing receipts and portion-outholder prizes. 2. One of the key parts in the profession specimen is ‘how’ Untouched Atlantic stipulate a uncommon soaring habit, untouched conduct this indispuboard sentiment forthcoming a conjuncture the moveionate soaring attendants and the indispuboard attitudes they exhibition customers. The airline secures the politelife of staff forthcoming a conjuncture serene wage, discounts on serenes as courteous as faithfulness schemes. The most general show of faithfulness towards staff was in 2009 when Untouched Atlantic inureees were absorbed 2 unimpeded soarings to any of the alertness destinations as segregate of the 25th anniversary of Untouched Atlantic Daily Mail (2009).
This generosity towards the staff has the identical tenets applied by its airline labors, the subject of profuseness onboard the aircrafts and the acquaintance that you get be smitten solicitude of. 2. 4. Thomson and Martin (2005) honor that customers demusic a key segregate in an organisations profession specimen as they are ones who the labors are specifically tailored to. In the 80’s when Untouched Atlantic’s anticipation was inaugurated, the magic of air voyage had musicd and air voyage was seen as an dear resources of getting from a to b.
People had obsolete what air voyage was all encircling, and the subjectl of jet contrast balance the universe in profuseness was seen available singly to those who where illustrious. The anticipation introduced advanced persons to pay balance but binder amend prize for coin and made the perfect air voyage habit delectable. Virgins Fruit is testimite to how cogent the primal anticipation of the enjoin was and exhibitions that their mission today is correspondently what customers are faceing for in a labor stipulater. 2. 5. Corporate Collective Responsibility besides admits a key outfollow in Untouched Atlantic’s profession specimen.
The enjoin’s forcible outfollow in beneath obligation profession is heavily generalised by the resources, chiefly when it follows to environmental parts. Richard Branson has generally pledged to endow receipts of his voyage organisations into the discovery and fruit of resource fuel and renewable activity Mallen Baker (2006). “Virgin Atlantic is committed to reducing our environmental impressions where we can by befitting a balance prolific profession, regulative the toil to trained and technical solutions and attractive, boccasion and empowering our staff and customers to succor us engage this challenge” Untouched Atlantic (2009). . 6. The airline was besides the primary of its husk to proof an resource fuel which was created from a league of coconuts and Brazilian Babassu nuts, BBC News 2008. Untouched Airline besides binder forcible policies on etemper and avoiding nicety, this was pushed into the resources when 13 of the alertness staff where sacked forthcoming describing the passengers as ‘chavs’ on the collective netinaugurated footing Facebook, a spokesperson for the airline reprevalent "It is impracticable for these cabin horde members to oceantain [our] noble standards of customer labor... f they dpolite these views. " BBC News 2008. This very general outfollow on collective responsibility, chiefly when it follows to environmental parts, strains the general sorrow that Untouched Atlantic inure chiefly when it follows to determination making and contrast their strategic superficials. Reidenbach and Robin (1995) binder manufactured a spectrum of 5 incorporeal/unincorpoactual responses and I honor that Untouched Airline would gravitate lower Ethically Engaged and, “Actively omission to do ‘the suiboard thing’ and be seen doing so”
The companies mission states that they omission to be a lucrative airline & their CSR outfollow assures the consumers that Untouched Atlantic binder tenets and although they omission to be a lucrative airline they get not consummate this strategic superficial outlay of the intentet and the persons who settle it. 3)External Factors There are a estimate of superficial parts which can move not singly the environmental possession of Untouched Atlantic but the attractiveness of the airline toil as a perfect.
Such parts can be segregateicularized by conducting a PESTLE Analysis, a PESTLE Decompose is a profession specimen contrived by faces at 6 opposed parts (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal & Incorpoactual Issues) and endowment to evaluate the impression these parts get binder on the Organisation. 3. 1. Collective &Legal Factors The ocean collective parts which move the airline industries possession and attractiveness is the prevalent tax cunning inureed by the council.
Due to the speedy retrench of stayable fuels and forthcoming a conjuncture sorrows of global warming forcibleer than always the Conservative segregatey intent to enlargement the Air Passenger Duty (APD) up to 113% by November 2010 if they win at the selection, Untouched Airline (2009). This get medium an enlargement in retributions thus moveing the attractiveness of the air voyage & may binder forcible impressions on Untouched Alertness receipts. Sorrow rates set by the council may move any loans that the Airline binder smitten out.
The exvary rates on sociality may besides stipulate outcomes when the enjoin claim to commerce sociality for customers on board an airduplicity emotional betwixt the uk and America etc. Legal parts which may move the attractiveness of the airline toil would be synod on bloom & safely, hire and airline regulations in stipulations of grafting and temper standards. Code-sharing bonds, which we binder ageical denotes a key role in the prosperity and fruit or Untouched Atlantic, may be put in to peril if there is engagement betwixt countries which could immanent move the air illimitableness in which Untouched Atlantic voyages.
It would be relevant for the enjoin to binder resource routes put in situate sanctioning them to calm?} get to their chartered destinations in contingency this fancy of site were to arise. Starting in 2012, the EU league get exact all alertness to dpolite discharge permits in enjoin to produce; this was contrived as a resources of reducing the outcomeion of greenhouse gases. This is bigwig which get outfollow Untouched Atlantic & they get binder to do discovery into the exacts of the permits & decompose how this get move the enjoin financially. 3. 2. Economic Factors
The economic parts moveing the airline toil as a perfect would be oceanly the prevalent management. Forthcoming a conjuncture less scanty proceeds the ask-for for voyage has gravitateen The Times (2009), and the airline may to face at competing forthcoming a conjuncture low budget alertness in 2010. The profession policy of air voyage is the most dear to run and has been moveed the defeat forthcoming a conjuncture the rises in fuel exacts Mintel Communication (2007). Branson has reprevalent generalally that the airline would no waver balancefollow the recession but that the primary dispose air of air voyage would pine, Daily Mail (2009).
The financial knowledge communicationed, which get be addressed in the contiguous specificity ‘Company Financial Performance’ , purpose-outs that Branson’s forebodement is amend and that that Untouched Airline get reocean permanent opposing the prevalent recession. This is one such scenario which Untouched Atlantic must address and discovery in enjoin to segregateicularize the environmental possession of the organisation and the force for it to consummate the 3 year manoeuvre in situate. As a outfollow of the recession, Untouched let go off 7% of all inureees in 2009 and may binder to think the possibility of letting balance go in 2010.
The airline is not endureing as their ocean rival British Airways let 4000 jobs go, Daily Mail (2009). 3. 3. Collective Factors & Incorpoactual Issues The ocean collective tend which could impression the airline industries attractiveness would be attitudes and discuss on protection. Forthcoming the terrorist attacks in September 2001, the cogitation if soaring was intolerable to most. There is calm?} the intimidation of terrorism and thus it’s no startle that abundant lifes are calm?} restless encircling their protection when soaring.
Virgin Atlantic would binder to construct secure that they binder procedures in situate to chaffer forthcoming a conjuncture such sites and relief any sorrows lifes binder encircling soaring. They binder set up a method for those lifes who binder a horror of soaring which admits situate in Local Airports Untouched Atlantic (2010). As priorly reprevalent there is an obsession forthcoming a conjuncture the notoriety culture and the subjectl of voyageing to irrelevant locations in profuseness, going into the contiguous decade it is relevant that this tend of collective foothold sediment relevant and ‘popular’ as this is the stigma conception which Untouched Atlantic is associated forthcoming a conjuncture.
If this collective part was to vary it would severely impression the attractiveness of the airline toil and after the ask-for for Untouched Atlantic’s labors would be moveed. The ocean incorpoactual outfollow which is moveing the attractiveness of the airline toil is the discharges let of by the aircrafts. Aviation is beneath obligation for 2% of discharges universewide and global warming is a immense outfollow in today’s collection, forthcoming a conjuncture abundant lifes dedicated to the collective tend of ‘going green’ in a bid to rescue the intentet.
Virgin Atlantic reocean actively sorrowed in the discovery and fruit of resource stayable fuels and binder affixed a intentional bond designed by the airline toil to lessen discharges by 50% in 2050 compared to that of 2005 . 3. 4 Technological Factors Untouched Atlantic has been at the forefront of technology, starting in the eighties when it was the primary airline to binder specific Televisions for its Profession Dispose Passengers, Untouched Atlantic (2009). Forthcoming a conjuncture technology in the aviation toil developing from year to year, from new air duplicity specimens which lessen discharges to prolific resources of checking in customers nd the wide relief facilities on board constructs air voyage is very requesting. Untouched Atlantic present wide relief systems as courteous as capacious and profuseness air voyage in their Airbus A380, which is the universe’s primary copy deck airduplicity presenting a largely functioning restaurant’s and bar’s, Boston (2009). This smooth of technology in the A380 sets the airline antecedently is rivals such as BA and low budget alertness can singly not cope forthcoming a conjuncture the smooth of self-satisfaction supposing on board. 4)Company Financial Performance
Despite rugged conditions of the superficial environment, spectryly the recession, Untouched Atlantic binder stayed a prosperityful and lucrative airline. In this specificity, the financial accomplishment of the airline get be analysed balance a 4 year age and compared to its ocean rival British Airways as courteous as social low budget airline Ryanair. 4. 1. The primary area we get face at is turnover. The turnbalance purpose-outs the smooth of profession that each airline has consummated balance a annually age, varys in turnbalance can be impressioned by varys in superficial parts which outfollow in a retrench of sales.
Virgin Atlantic’s turnbalance is plenteous less compared to their rivals. This is not a penny sign of the financial accomplishment of an organisation but the coin they trace from sales can purpose-out the ask-for one alertness labor balance another. Although a enjoin may binder a noble sales turnover, the actual acquisitionforce is segregateicularized by preliminary the pre-tax receipts and dividing these by the turnover, Thomson and Martin 2005. 4. 2. Pre-tax receipts To fir the financial prosperity of the Untouched Atlantic we get primaryly face at the pre-tax receipts of the airline & that of its selected rivals.
Pre-tax receipts – Ryanair (thousand 000) Ryanair (2005/9) Pre-tax receipts- British Airways (Millions ? ) British Airways (2005/9) They key part to music in all three pre-tax receipts charts is that the recession in 2008 has impressioned twain low frills alertness and British Airways. Twain airline communicationed wastees, the most forcible life that of BA at ? 401 Million. Opposing the superficial part of sphere vary Untouched Atlantic has contrived to not singly stay its financial accomplishment but to approximately doubled their pre-tax receipts from the prior year, forthcoming a conjuncture recitative pre-tax receipts of ? 68. 4 Million. 4. 3.
Profit Lip Untouched Atlantic is the singly one to binder conducted their acquisition lip balance 2008. Ryanair & British Airways binder made forcible wastees, whilst Untouched Atlantic’s acquisition lip is gain-grounding. This proportioned exhibitions how plenteous of an impression the management has on the airline toil and resources that Untouched Atlantic get binder to binder exact of sales, government, the selling and classification exacts of tickets down in enjoin to reocean lucrative. 4. 4. Gearing Relevancy The mediocre gearing relevancy in the airline toil is environing 150% conjuncture some companies who are struggling in the recession are as noble as 380%.
Another key statistic in determining Untouched Atlantics financial pose is the gearing relevancy. The gearing relevancy measures the repay on influential inureed and purpose-outs any financial occasions. The tenet is that the nobleer the gearing relevancy the balance vunerable the enjoin is. Year Gearing (%) 2005 284. 76 2006 209. 82 2007 199. 92 2008 189. 44 2009 183. 18 As you can see from the board aloft Untouched Atlantic is subordinately balance the applauded mediocre in the aviation toil but their vulnerforce and financial occasion is decreasing year on year forthcoming the ask-for for their labors. 5.
Competitive Manoeuvre A distinct competitive manoeuvre is key in the prosperity of an organisation engageing its strategic superficials. In enjoin to fir Untouched Atlantic’s Competitive manoeuvre we get be using Porters Generic Strategic Framework, a diagram is exhibitionn beneath. According to Porters speculation there are 5 forces used to analyse the toil; 5. 1. “Threat of New Entrants. ” As forthcoming a conjuncture any toil the balance new alertness that invade the traffic, the balance saturated it becomes. The most relevant parts in the airline toil in cherishing faithfulness are stigma spectry acknowledgment and general fliers purpose s.
Virgin Atlantic binder gone-by the elapsed 25 years erection their polished and partially sexy conception which is so requesting to flyers today. Untouched Atlantics forcible stigma spectry and discounts for constant air voyagelers get bestow them the susceptibility to form a customer flush if its prices are subordinately nobleer than its rivals. 5. 2. “Power of Suppliers. ” Boeing and Airbus are two of the ocean air duplicity manufacturers. Their aircrafts are used by Untouched Atlantic and preponderance of its rivals, hence there is no actual race betwixt them. 5. 3 “Power of Buyers. Due to there life a low rare in suppliers in the aviation toil and preliminary into representation that switching all Untouched Atlantics 38 air duplicitys to another supplier would be very exactly, the airline do not binder susceptibility balance the suppliers. 5. 4. “Availforce of Substitutes. ” Substitute outcomes and labors may be a sorrow of some alertness, chiefly smaller regional firms. Howalways when it follows to Untouched Atlantic they binder routes to some of the best locations in the universe, of method there are other prize retribution alertness which go to the identical destinations but they get not binder the identical stigma conception as Virgin.
It would proportioned be up to the specific voyageling and probably sorrow the exact destruction betwixt Untouched Atlantic and its Competitors. 5. 5. “Competitive Rivalry. ” There is a positive concatenate of counterassociation in the aviation toil, chiefly betwixt Untouched Atlantic and British airways. The moves of the race are balance distinct in a economic turndown, for specimen BA’s waste of 401 darling the year completion won’t be succored by Untouched Atlantic’s 25th Anniversary which was notable all though 2009, presenting specific promotions and discounted rates. 5. 6.
This Decompose would purpose-out that Untouched Atlantic would gravitate lower opposediation centre manoeuvre. By presenting prize priced outcomes for a noble temper labor Untouched Atlantic has an habit balance its rivals. Porter (1980) 6. Strategic Superscription of Fruit The ocean strategic superscription flowed by Untouched Atlantic in to enlargement the alertness traffic portion-out. This fruit has been the ocean strategic superficial departed 2008 when it was introduced in a 3 year intent. According to Ansoff’s Matrix there are immodest ocean fancys of fruit, Ansoff (1987). Untouched Atlantic’s strategic superscription would gravitate lower twain traffic sharpness & Outfollow Development.
The forcible traffic which Untouched Atlantic produces in abides to binder a gain-grounding ask-for for the prevalent labors which the airline present. The fruit in ask-for is due to separate of the superficial parts which were examiclaim prior, spectryly the collective tend of profuseness air voyage and the subject of jet contrast environing the universe forthcoming a conjuncture a enjoin associated forthcoming a conjuncture celebrities and seen to been sexy. The fruit in ask-for is verified in the enlargementd ticket sales balance the elapsed few years opposing the prevalent recession which is moveing other prize alertness Untouched Atlantic abide to out-gain-ground its rivals.
The strategic superscription of increasing traffic portion-out could not follow at a amend interval for Untouched forthcoming a conjuncture British Airways in colossal dept and in a very delicate pose. It is no secluded that if BA were incompetent to produce that Untouched Atlantic would see a forcible enlargement in the traffic portion-out. Opposing the prosperity of the forcible labors in the forcible traffics, it is courteous unreserved that Untouched Atlantic push for alteration in outfollow fruit. As ageical in the superficial environmental decompose airline binder been at the forefront of technology departed they inaugurated in the eighties.
By perpetually updating their speedy of air duplicitys forthcoming a conjuncture the newest gadgets and luxuries, the alertness passengers binder a amend habit on board and are balance movely to voyage interval and interval generally forthcoming a conjuncture the airline. 7. Methods of Fruit 7. 1. In enjoin for Untouched Atlantic Airline to gain-ground it invadeed into a sequence portion-out bond forthcoming a conjuncture some of the larger spectrys in the airline toil these interposed Continental Alertness & Jet Airways iloveinda. com (2009). Sequence sharing bonds are used by companies to construct the most of each other’s resources and according to the Air Transport Association, Code-sharing bonds sanction two (or balance) alertness to present a expansiveer equip of labors to their customers than they could specificly. These trafficing arrangements poweren an airline to outfollow tickets on a soaring produced by another airline as if it were its own, including the use of its own two-letter sequence for that soaring. These arrangements sanction alertness to traffic remote networks for their passengers at minimal outlay” Air Transport Association (2009) 7. 2.
In 1999 Untouched Atlantic besides colleagueed forthcoming a conjuncture Singapore alertness who now own 49% of the enjoin, Richard Branson signed the chaffer as he honord it to be an cogent way of presenting their customers a rove ramble of destinations at competitive rates BBC News (1999). 8. Conclusions and Recommendations The diagram created by Rowe et Al in 1989, can be used to segregateicularize Untouched Atlantics Strategic superscription and segregateicularizes what fancy of manoeuvre the airline should loweradmit going impertinent. Rowe et Al open this specimen based on which he thinked to be immodest relevant variables.
The financial power of the airline and the habit it has balance its competing alertness constructs up the inside strategic superscription and the possession of the management concurrently forthcoming a conjuncture the attractiveness of the airline toil as a perfect. Throughout this communication, the strategic superscription of Untouched Atlantic has been examiclaim and the methods of fruit evaluated concurrentlypolicy alertness financial accomplishment, preliminary into thinkation the superficial environment. As a outfollow of this decompose and though Rowe at Al’s Illimitableness Decompose we can argue that the airline is not singly using a displeasing manoeuvre but that their adit is noblely competitive.
The prevalent manoeuvre inureed by Untouched Atlantic is very prosperityful and is essentially the discuss why the organisation has stayed lucrative in such intervals as a recession. I would applaud that Untouched Atlantic expand the prevalent manoeuvre balance a longer age of interval, all of the areas in this communication resonance the prosperity of the manoeuvre and how courteous it fits into the organisations profession specimen. They must construct secure that they abide to stigma themselves as having a uncommon selling purpose forthcoming a conjuncture an discuss on prize for coin in enjoin to reocean competitive.
Another applaudation would be to binder the management investment which they binder on soarings, i honor that if this part was stripped abroad totally then the airline would raise niggardly their traffic raise and lessen the immanent traffic portion-outs. Forthcoming a conjuncture the intentional target set in the airline toil on bitter discharges by 2050, I would advance Untouched Atlantic to admit a balance general outfollow and be actively sorrowed in the discovery and fruit of bio fuels by pairing up forthcoming a conjuncture the manage organisation. This would strain the alertness outfollow of incorpoactual outcomes sorrowing global warming.
The way in which the organisation stigmas itself, life sexy & speech in cheek, has been constantly one of the most relevant parts in the alertness prosperity. I applaud that notice conveyed forthcoming a conjuncture the alertness ’25 years calm?} red hot campaign’ is carried on throughout 2010. Page 12 References Airline Netfruit (2007) ‘Virgin Atlantic Passenger Traffic Increase’ Online at http://www. get-packing. com/news/flights/archives/august-2007/virgin-atlantic-passenger-traffic-increase. html (Accessed 19th November 2009) Air Transport Association ‘Airline Handbook, Chapter 2, Sequence Sharing’ online at http://www. alertness. rg/products/AirlineHandbookCh2. htm (Accessed 1st January 2010) Boston (2009) ‘Virgin Atlantic’s Airbus A380’ online at http://images. google. co. uk/imgres? imgurl=http://cache. boston. com/bonzai-fba/Third_Party_Photo/2005/01/18/1106063427_8542. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. boston. com/business/gallery/airbus/&usg=__tA9PrCq_sbXx6TAWpndBbvcOSrc=&h=333&w=508&sz=28&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=wm5v998e2jOptM:&tbnh=86&tbnw=131&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvirgin%2Bairbus%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4TSEH_enGB359GB359%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 (Accessed online 20th November 2009) BBC News (2008)’Airline in primary biofuel soaring’ online at http://news. bc. co. uk/1/hi/7261214. stm (Accessed 10th of December 2009). BBC News, ‘Branson sells 49% of Untouched Atlantic’ online at http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/business/572516. stm (Accessed 19th November 2009) BBC News (2008) ‘Crew sacked balance Facebook posts’ online at http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/uk/7703129. stm (Accessed 10th December 2009 The Daily Mail (2009) ‘Like A Untouched (Pin-Up): kate Moss Dresses up In A Red Playsuit As She Joins Branson for Untouched Atlantic’s 25th Birthday’ online at http://www. dailymail. co. k/tvshowbiz/article-1194691/Like-A-Virgin-Pin--Kate-Moss-dresses-red-joins-Branson-Virgin-Atlantics-25th-birthday. html (Accessed 20th November 2009) The Daily Mail (2009) ‘Virgin Staff Get Bonuses Conjuncture Ailing Rivals BA Urged to Admit Pay Cut’ online at http://www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-1194942/Virgin-staff-bonuses-ailing-rivals-BA-urged-pay-cut. html (Accessed 19th November 2009) Iloveindia. com ‘Virgin Atlantic Airways’ online at http://www. iloveindia. com/airlines-in-india/international/virgin-atlantic. htm